Importance of Rūdrådhyåyaḥ in Nigama & Āgama Dr.Shashikant B.Dargu Department of Sanskrit N.S.B.College, Nanded. Indian knowledge bank is known as Nigama. Ni + gam root i.e the perfectness of knowledge. ‘Niścayena tattvam gamayati iti Nigama.’ Nigamas are also known as Vedas or Samhitå. There are four Vedas – Ṛig, Yajus, Såma and Atharva. Ṛig – stuti of deities, Yajus – karma, , Såma – for singing and Atharva – removal of problems. All these are very important for Indian culture. The Rudrasūktam – is the part of kriúïaYajus taittiriya samhitå 4th kånde 5th Prapåthaka called as Rūdrådhyåyaḥ. The question is what is Rudra? In this paper try to find out the answer of this question and discussion of some important aspects of this sūktam. Rūdram - Rūdram sansårarudram śokam dråvayati iti.[i] It is very important and energetic deity. So we worship Rūdra by chanting Rūdrådhyåyaḥ. According to Bṛhatspati and other experts Namak and Chamak both are called as Rūdradhyåya. ‘Ekådaśaguïån rudrañjapitvå rudratåm vrajet’ iti.[ii] According to Boudhåyana and Āpasthambha – ‘Pañcångarudråïåm japahomårcanavidhim vyåkhyåsyåmaḥ’ There are five types of Japa, Homa and Arcana the rudrådhyåyaḥ. 1 Rūpam. 2 Rudraḥ, 3 Rudrī, 4 Mahårudra, 5Atirudra. [iii] 1.Rupam – ‘Tatra namakacamakamåtraubhayam Rūpam’ only the chanting of Namaka and Camaka anuvåkås called as ‘Rūpam’. 2.Rudraḥ - ‘krameïa pathanam sakṛdåvartanam iti.’ Karma patha of Namaka and Camaka anuvåkås called as Rudraḥ. It is also called as Rudri - ‘Ityevamekådeśåvṛtyå rudro rudrekådeśini iti ca ucyate’ i.e. 11th chants of Namaka and Camaka anuvåkås called as Rudri. 3. Laghurudra – ‘tairekådaśabhī rudrailaghurudraḥ prakīrtitaḥ’ iti i.e. chanting of 11th Rudri known as Laghurudra. 4. Mahårudra - ‘Tairekådeśabhirmahårudraḥ’ i.e. the 11th laghurudras chanting called as Mahårudra. 5. Atirudra – ‘Ekådaśabhirmahårudrairatirudraḥ’ i.e. chanting of 11th Mahådras known as Atirudra. These five types are discussed in śåntiratne.[iv] All these concepts are accepted by chåndogyopaniúad, Taitiriyake also. Karmakåïde also stated the importance of Rudra chanting – Camakam namakam caiva pouruúam sūktameva ca. Nityam trayam prayuñjåno brahmaloke mahīyate.[v] It is not only the stuti of lord rudra but also it is a great knowledge bank. According to Kaivalyaponiśad – Anena jñånamapnoti sansårårïavanåśam. Tasmådenam viditvaiva kaivalyaphalamaśnute. Rudrasuktam – Chandas - Anuúṭupa, Gåyatrī, Pankti, Jagati Ṛśī – Aghora and Parameúṭī. Devatå – Parama puruúa Rudra. Rudra described as the great warrior,who save his worshippers from the enemies from all directions. He lived in Himalayan valley. Rudra is the great and first Vaidya or medicine expert. In the ending of first namaka we can see the various names for lord Rudra as – ‘Namaste astu bhagawan viśveśvaråya mahådevåya triyambakåya, tripuruúåya, tripuråntakåya, trikålågnikålåya, kålågnirudråya nīlakanṭhåya mṛtyunjayåya sarveśvaråya sadåśivåya śrīmanmahådevåya namaḥ. [vi] He is the deity of beauty, fear, smile, terror, joy etc. He also gives his blessings to all i.e. farmers, businessman, workers, students, teachers and thief also. He can control the birth, breathe and death of all human beings, animals and plants. In the second part camaka, the worshipper prays towards lord Rudra all his requirements. Every word joined with ca ca so called as camaka. The Commentators of Rudradhyåya – Såyana, Viúïusuri and Mådhavåcårya – these three main commentators of Rudra suktam. These commentary texts are accepted by vedic experts. It helps to study all the dimensions of rudrasuktam. It can be conclude that the Vedic Sukta Rudra is the very important mantra and it has both the aspects of human life namaka and chamaka. It covers all the wishes of human life. So Śaivågamasiddhånta Ācårya Śrī Śivayogi explained – ‘Rudråyådikåbhyåso’[vii] Chanting of Rudrasuktam is the great Japa.
[i] Rudradhyah- Vishnusuribhashyam, Andandashrama publication, Pune. 1958 pg.01 [ii] Rudradhyah- Vishnusuribhashyam, Andandashrama publication, Pune. 1958, Pg.01 [iii] Introduction of Rudradhyah- Vishnusuribhashyam, Andandashrama publication, Pune. 1958 [iv] Śåntiratna pg.77. [v] Karmakåda. [vi] Rudradhyaya 1st anuvaka 16th mantra. [vii] Sri Siddhantasikhamani 9.24, Nandi Foundation, Nanded.